Working capital (WC) can be represented as follows:
Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities
It can be said that WC measures a company’s efficiency as well as their short-term financial health (Investopedia, n.d.).
A company should always have a positive WC value. If there are less assets than there are liabilities then this means that the company is unable to repay all of their liabilities, this should be considered a “red flag” when assessing the financials of a business (Investopedia, n.d.). It should also be compared with previous WC amounts to assess a decline in profits/sales and should also be cause for concern (Investopedia, n.d.).
Management of Stock-in-trade:
It is important to consider the costs behind holding and not holding your inventories (stock-in-trade). Holding stock incurs costs such as storage space, insurance, loss of interest on the cash used to purchase stock as well as the potential losses in the case that stock becomes obsolete (Atrill & McLaney, 2011). On the contrary, not holding stock on hand poses risks of losing sales, reordering costs, production being slowed down, and potential time critical opportunities for large quantities of stock being missed (Atrill & McLaney, 2011).
Companies should therefore manage their inventories wisely. When managing inventories a company should identify the most efficient amount of stock to be ordered by using assessment models and methods to find out the best frequency and quantity to order stock, it is important to keep accurate inventory logs so that historical data can be used in this (Atrill & McLaney, 2011), taking into consideration future forecasts of required stock.
“Just in Time” (JIT) inventory management can also be considered (Atrill & McLaney, 2011). JIT is used by most online stores today and, as the name implies, stock is ordered or re-ordered only when it is needed (often after the purchase has been made in the scenario of online stores).
Management of Trade Debtors:
This can also be referred to as “trade receivables”. Careful consideration should be made when deciding which customers should receive credit. Atrill & McLaney (2011) outline the 5 C’s of credit, as explained by Investopedia (2011):
1) Character – The reputation of the borrower (eg: via credit check)
2) Capacity – Compare the borrowers income to their recurring debts to work out their capacity to repay more debt
3) Capital – Consider the amount of capital (deposit) the borrower is going to put down on the purchase, the higher the deposit the less chance of default.
4) Collateral – Does the borrower have collateral (eg: property) that can be used to recover bad debt.
5) Conditions – Interest rates and the term of repayment should also be considered.
The costs behind giving credit are also a factor. These are costs such as losing interest from having cash on hand in investments, as well as the lost purchasing power due to the lack of cash on hand, administration costs for maintaining customer accounts and the additional costs involved in vetting potential trade debtors must also be considered; perhaps the biggest concern would be the risk of bad debts (Atrill & McLaney, 2011). If potential clients are refused credit then the potential of a poor reputation, or losing clients is also there.
All of these above issues should be carefully evaluated and policies on all possible risks and situations as well as contingency plans should be drawn up to maintain trade debtors.
When managing cash it is important to evaluate the benefits behind keeping cash on hand as well as the best amount of cash to keep on hand. If cash is on hand, the company is losing out on interest that could be gained from the cash being in investments, also, purchasing power due to bank statements reflecting a lower balance (Atrill & McLaney, 2011).
The potential losses from not having enough cash on hand can be that of losing “supplier goodwill” (Atrill & McLaney, 2011) if there are not enough funds to keep up to date on payments. As well as missed opportunities for purchasing in cash and receiving cash discounts. Another major issue to consider is the cost of borrowing money needed (interest charged) if there is not enough cash on hand.
As with trade debtors, it is important to plan, using historic records to base your plans on. Make contingency plans and policies and find the lowest source of funding if needed (overdrafts etc.).
Also referred to as “trade payables”, is the amount of credit the company itself has (for purchasing inventories etc.) Costs to consider when managing trade credits are that of purchases on credit generally being of a higher cost than purchasing in cash (due to interest, or just simply a higher price); additional administration costs are also required to manage trade creditors for the company (Atrill & McLaney, 2011).
Trade credit can also favour the company as some suppliers may allow for borrowing without charging any interest, some suppliers may also require the company to have credit (or at least, be “credit worthy”) to be able to get discounts or be able to make large orders (helps build goodwill) (Atrill & McLaney, 2011).
As with the previous areas it is important to develop policies and plans around trade creditors. If the company is able to get interest free credit then they should take advantage of this to increase cash flow in the business (Atrill & McLaney, 2011).
Accounting ratios should be used where ever possible to help evaluate and assess the best possible option in managing working capital. The working capital ratio can be used to calculate the efficiency of a company when it comes to managing stock in trade, trade debtors and creditors (MoneyTerms.co.uk, n.d.) – the calculation is as follows:
Working Capital Ratio = (stock-in-trade + trade debtors – trade creditors) / sales
MoneyTerms.co.uk (n.d.) give an example that if the ratio is 0.20 then that means that the company requires 20p (cents) of working capital for every 1GBP of annual sales, which can be put as : “If annual sales increase by £100,000 of then the company will have to invest £20,000 in working capital to be able to meet this.”.
Atrill, P. & McLaney, E. (2011) Accounting and Finance for Non-Specialists. 7th Edition. Prentice Hall.
Investopedia (n.d.) 5 Cs of Credit [Online]. Available from: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/five-c-credit.asp (Accessed: 30 April 2011).
Investopedia (n.d.) Working Capital [Online]. Available from: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/w/workingcapital.asp (Accessed: 30 April 2011).
MoneyTerms.co.uk (n.d.) Working capital [Online]. Available from: http://moneyterms.co.uk/working_capital/ (Accessed: 30 April 2011).